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Other Treatments Global Adoption
184 ivermectin COVID-19 studies, 134 peer reviewed, 92 comparing treatment and control groups. Recent:
Ivermectin was adopted for early treatment in all or part of 22 countries (39 including non-government medical organizations). Submit updates/corrections.
Sep 20
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis v199
Ivermectin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 92 studies
Details   • Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, recovery, cases, and viral clearance. All remain significant after exclusions. 58 studies from 52 independent teams in 22 differ..
Sep 19
Late Aref et al., Infection and Drug Resistance, doi:10.2147/IDR.S381715
recov. time, ↓74.0%, p<0.0005
Possible Role of Ivermectin Mucoadhesive Nanosuspension Nasal Spray in Recovery of Post-COVID-19 Anosmia
Details   96 patient RCT showing faster resolution of post-COVID anosmia with an ivermectin nanosuspension nasal spray.
Sep 16
Review Kory, P., Pierre Kory’s Medical Musings (Review) (Preprint)
The Criminal Censorship of Ivermectin's Efficacy By The High-Impact Medical Journals - Part 1
Details   Review of censorship and negative publication bias for ivermectin research.
Sep 15
Animal Uematsu et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint)
animal study
Prophylactic Effect of Ivermectin on SARS-CoV-2 Induced Disease in a Syrian Hamster Model
Details   Hamster study showing that prophylactic ivermectin inhibited COVID-19 weight loss, reduced lung viral titer by a factor of 10, inhibited pulmonary inflammatory cytokine expression, and reduced the severity of pathological changes with a s..
Sep 1
Late Akhtar et al., The Professional Medical Journal, doi:10.29309/TPMJ/2022.29.09.6634
death, ↓90.4%, p<0.0001
Does ivermectin reduce COVID-19 mortality and progression of disease severity? – A retrospective study.
Details   Retrospective 423 patients in Pakistan, 216 receiving 6 day treatment, showing lower mortality, lower ICU admission, and faster viral clearance with treatment. Limited baseline information per group is provided. There were more severe pat..
Aug 31
Late Qadeer et al., Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.53350/pjmhs2216824
viral+, ↓58.3%, p<0.0001
Ivermectin A Potential Treatment In Covid-19, Related to Critical Illness
Details   Prospective convenience sampling study of 210 hospitalized age-matched COVID-19 patients, showing faster viral clearance with ivermectin. Baseline information per group is not provided.
Aug 18
Early Bramante et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2201662
death, ↑197.1%, p=1.00
Randomized Trial of Metformin, Ivermectin, and Fluvoxamine for Covid-19
Details   COVID-OUT remote RCT, showing no significant differences compared to a combined metformin/placebo "control" group. Results for other treatments are listed separately - metformin , fluvoxamine . There are several major issues as detailed b..
Aug 12
Review Kory, P., Pierre Kory’s Medical Musings (Review) (Preprint)
The Miracle Not-Heard Around The World: The Success of Uttar Pradesh
Details   Detailed review of Uttar Pradesh's use of ivermectin, the dramatically better results compared to states declining ivermectin, and the censorship of ivermectin use. If Uttar Pradesh was a country, it would be the 6th largest in the world.
Aug 10
In Silico Chellasamy et al., Journal of King Saud University - Science, doi:10.1016/j.jksus.2022.102277
In Silico
Docking and molecular dynamics studies of human ezrin protein with a modelled SARS-CoV-2 endodomain and their interaction with potential invasion inhibitors
Details   In Silico study of SARS-CoV-1&2 endodomains and ezrin docking, identifying ivermectin, quercetin, calcifediol, calcitriol, selamectin, and minocycline as potential therapeutic drugs with strong ezrin binding which may restrict viral endod..
Aug 10
Review Al-kuraishy et al., Current Drug Targets, doi:10.2174/1389450123666220810102406 (Review)
Central effects of Ivermectin in alleviation of Covid-19-induced dysautonomia
Details   Review of the potential benefits of ivermectin for mitigating SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced dysautonomia.
Jul 19
Early Schilling et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.07.15.22277570 (Preprint)
hosp., ↓66.7%, p=1.00
Pharmacometric assessment of the in-vivo antiviral activity of ivermectin in early symptomatic COVID-19
Details   Very high conflict of interest RCT with design optimized for a null result: very low risk patients, high existing immunity, post-hoc change to exclude patients more likely to benefit. There was no significant difference in viral clearance..
Jul 11
Theory Hazan, S., Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2022.952321 (Theory)
Microbiome-Based Hypothesis on Ivermectin’s Mechanism in COVID-19: Ivermectin Feeds Bifidobacteria to Boost Immunity
Details   Hypothesis for an additional mechanism of action for ivermectin: inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines due to enhanced replication of Bifidobacterium.
Jun 29
Early Nimitvilai et al., Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, doi:10.4103/jgid.jgid_281_21
progression, ↑96.5%, p=1.00
A randomized controlled trial of combined ivermectin and zinc sulfate versus combined hydroxychloroquine, darunavir/ritonavir, and zinc sulfate among adult patients with asymptomatic or mild coronavirus-19 infection
Details   RCT low-risk patients in Thailand comparing HCQ, darunavir/ritonavir, and zinc, with ivermectin and zinc, showing no significant differences. All patients recovered. 65% of patients were asymptomatic at baseline, 26% were PCR- at baseline..
Jun 23
Early Mirahmadizadeh et al., Respirology, doi:10.1111/resp.14318
ventilation, ↓66.9%, p=0.37
Efficacy of single‐dose and double‐dose ivermectin early treatment in preventing progression to hospitalization in mild COVID ‐19: A multi‐arm, parallel‐group randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial
Details   RCT with 131 24mg ivermectin, 130 12mg ivermectin, and 130 placebo patients, showing no significant differences in outcomes. Lower ventilation and hospitalization was seen with treatment, in a dose-dependent manner, but not reaching stati..
Jun 21
Meta Popp et al., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD015017.pub3 (Preprint)
Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19
Details   Highly biased meta analysis. Authors originally wrote a highly biased meta analysis that avoided statistical significance on individual outcomes with extreme exclusions , although efficacy was still seen when looking across all outcomes. ..
Jun 18
In Vitro Jitobaom et al., BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, doi:10.1186/s40360-022-00580-8 (date from earlier preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Synergistic anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of repurposed anti-parasitic drug combinations
Details   In Vitro study showing a strong synergistic effect of combinations of ivermectin, niclosamide, and chloroquine, with >10x reduction in IC50 compared to individual drugs.
Jun 16
Early Rezai et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.919708
death, ↑4.9%, p=1.00
Non-effectiveness of Ivermectin on Inpatients and Outpatients With COVID-19; Results of Two Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials
Details   RCT 549 low risk outpatients in Iran. Reported outcomes are very different from the pre-specified outcomes . The inpatient trial is listed separately. The pre-specified primary clinical outcome was not reported. The reported components of..
Jun 16
Late Rezai et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.919708
death, ↓30.8%, p=0.36
Non-effectiveness of Ivermectin on Inpatients and Outpatients With COVID-19; Results of Two Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials
Details   RCT 609 inpatients in Iran. Reported outcomes are very different from the pre-specified outcomes . The outpatient trial is listed separately. From the pre-specified outcomes, all are either positive or not reported. Pre-specified outcomes..
Jun 14
In Vitro Williams, T., Do Your Own Research (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Not All Ivermectin Is Created Equal: Comparing The Quality of 11 Different Ivermectin Sources
Details   In Vitro analysis of ivermectin from 11 different sources showing highly variable antiparasitic efficacy. Multiple sources and brands were more effective than the US mass produced Edenbridge brand.
Jun 12
Late Naggie, S., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.06.10.22276252 (Preprint)
death, ↑194.7%, p=1.00
Ivermectin for Treatment of Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 in the Outpatient Setting: A Decentralized, Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Platform Clinical Trial
Details   RCT low-risk outpatients with very late treatment (median 6 days, 25% ≥8 days) in the USA, showing 98% probability of efficacy for clinical progression at day 14, a treatment delay-response relationship, and significant efficacy for patie..
Jun 12
Early Angkasekwinai et al., Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics11060796 Safety and Efficacy of Ivermectin for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Double-Blinded Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study
Details   Low-risk RCT in Thailand with zero mortality, reporting no significant differences with the addition of ivermectin to favipiravir treatment, however the study as reported does not make sense as detailed below. All participants were suspec..
May 27
Late George et al., Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, doi:10.1007/s12288-022-01546-w
death, ↓30.4%, p=0.55
Single Dose of Ivermectin is not Useful in Patients with Hematological Disorders and COVID-19 Illness: A Phase II B Open Labelled Randomized Controlled Trial
Details   RCT with 35 single dose 24mg, 38 single dose 12mg, and 39 SOC hospitalized patients with hematological illnesses in India, showing no significant differences. Results were better for 24mg vs. 12mg for all symptomatic outcomes. Viral clear..
May 27
Review Schwartz, E., New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2022.100989 (Review)
Does ivermectin have a place in the treatment of mild Covid-19?
Details   Discussion of ivermectin research compared to paxlovid and molnupiravir. Author includes a meta analysis of low-risk-of-bias studies showing significantly lower hospitalization for outpatient treatment with ivermectin. This efficacy is se..
May 23
Early Rocha et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint)
misc., ↑186.7%, p=1.00
Ivermectin compared with placebo in the clinical evolution of Mexican patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial
Details   Authors did not respond to a request for the data. Authors report 45.8% asymptomatic placebo patients on day 14, howevere there is no number of 26 patients that is 45.8%. Authors report 18% of ivermectin patients asymptomatic at day 5, ho..
May 20
Early Valerio Pascua et al., Epidemiology International Journal, doi:10.23880/eij-16000234 Repurposing Drugs for Covid-19 by a Developing Country
Details   Review of a multiphasic multidrug early treatment protocol for COVID-19 in Honduras, showing one death from 415 patients, which was for a patient not receiving early treatment (presenting on the 5th day in need of hospitalization and supp..
May 20
Late Silva et al., Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.899702
death, ↓32.3%, p=0.57
Clinical-Epidemiology Aspect of Inpatients With Moderate or Severe COVID-19 in a Brazilian Macroregion: Disease and Countermeasures
Details   Retrospective 395 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing mortality HR 0.59 for antiparasitic use, however there were only 8 patients treated and authors do not distinguish between albendazole and ivermectin.
May 14
In Silico Alvarado et al., Computational Biology and Chemistry, doi:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2022.107692
In Silico
Interaction of the New Inhibitor Paxlovid (PF-07321332) and Ivermectin With the Monomer of the Main Protease SARS-CoV-2: A Volumetric Study Based on Molecular Dynamics, Elastic Networks, Classical Thermodynamics and SPT
Details   In Silico study comparing ivermectin and paxlovid Mpro interaction, showing similar interaction for paxlovid and the ivermectin B1a homologue, a different mechanism for ivermectin B1b, and interaction at different sites for paxlovid.
May 8
In Vitro Croci et al., International Journal of Biomaterials, doi:10.1155/2016/8043983 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Liposomal Systems as Nanocarriers for the Antiviral Agent Ivermectin
Details   In Vitro study of liposomal formulations of ivermectin showing up to 5 times lower cytotoxicity and increased antiviral activity in Dengue strains.
Apr 27
Late Babalola et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) Ivermectin is associated with increase in SPO2 in hypoxemic SARS-CoV-2 patients: pharmacodynamic profile and correlates
Details   Extended analysis of , showing significantly faster and greater improvement in SpO2 with ivermectin treatment.
Apr 13
Review Marinos, A. (Review) (Preprint)
The Problem With The TOGETHER Trial
Details   Analysis of serious problems with the Together Trial. Also see .
May 31
Animal Zheng et al., International Journal of Pharmaceutics, doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.121719
animal study
Red blood cell-hitchhiking mediated pulmonary delivery of ivermectin: Effects of nanoparticle properties
Details   In Vitro and mouse study proposing a method for improving ivermectin pharmacokinetics and bioavailability using delivery via red blood cells.
Apr 6
Late Ravikirti et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint)
death, ↓2.8%, p=0.82
Association between Ivermectin treatment and mortality in Covid-19: A hospital-based case-control study
Details   Retrospective 965 late stage (44% severe, 27% ICU) hospitalized patients in India, showing no significant difference with ivermectin treatment. Overall mortality was very high, suggesting very late treatment. The low non-weight-adjusted d..
Apr 2
In Vitro Delandre et al., Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph15040445 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Antiviral Activity of Repurposing Ivermectin against a Panel of 30 Clinical SARS-CoV-2 Strains Belonging to 14 Variants
Details   In Vitro study with 30 COVID-19 strains from 14 variants, showing stronger efficacy with ivermectin compared to CQ and remdesivir, and relatively homogeneous efficacy with ivermectin regardless of strain/variant, in contrast to results fo..
Mar 25
In Silico Aminpour et al., Computation, doi:10.3390/computation10040051
In Silico
In Silico Analysis of the Multi-Targeted Mode of Action of Ivermectin and Related Compounds
Details   In Silico analysis identifying strong or moderate affinity bindings for ivermectin to multiple sites on the spike protein, CD147 and α7nAChr, which may provide effective competitive binding for all variants of SARS-CoV-2. Ivermectin had t..
Mar 21
Meta Bitterman et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.3079 Comparison of Trials Using Ivermectin for COVID-19 Between Regions With High and Low Prevalence of Strongyloidiasis
Details   Analysis of a small subset of 12 ivermectin trials showing a relationship with efficacy and strongyloides prevalence. This analysis is confounded by treatment delay, dose, conflicts of interest, and other factors, and the effect disappear..
Mar 18
Animal Albariqi et al., International Journal of Pharmaceutics, doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.121688
animal study
Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Inhaled Ivermectin in Mice as a Potential COVID-19 Treatment
Details   Mouse study of an inhaled ivermectin formulation, showing high concentrations in the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, exceeding the required concentration for efficacy based on in vitro studies.
Mar 11
Dosing Albariqi et al., Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, doi:10.1089/jamp.2021.0059 (Dosing)
dosing study
Preparation and Characterization of Inhalable Ivermectin Powders as a Potential COVID-19 Therapy
Details   Creation and analysis of an inhalable dry powder formulation of ivermectin for COVID-19.
Mar 7
News Harper, P. (News)
Professor tied to altered Andrew Hill paper also prepared 'Ivermectin Evidence' for World Health Organisation
Details   Forensic analysis of the Hill meta analysis discovering an unlisted author potentially connected to changes and also related to the WHO ivermectin analysis. Author notes that "the person who allegedly edited the Andrew Hill paper ..
Mar 4
News Lawrie, T. (News)
A Letter to Dr. Andrew Hill
Details   Documentary about the external forces changing the conclusions of the Hill et al. meta analysis, and the subsequent negative impact around the world.
Mar 2
Late Soto et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0264789
death, ↑41.0%, p=0.001
Mortality and associated risk factors in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in a Peruvian reference hospital
Details   Retrospective 1,418 very late stage (46% mortality) patients in Peru, showing higher mortality with ivermectin. There is strong confounding by indication, for example 48% of patients with baseline SpO2 <70% were treated compared with 22% ..
Feb 28
Late Efimenko et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.12.096
death, ↓69.2%, p<0.0001
Treatment with Ivermectin Is Associated with Decreased Mortality in COVID-19 Patients: Analysis of a National Federated Database
Details   PSM retrospective 41,608 patients in the USA, 1,072 treated with ivermectin and 40,536 treated with remdesivir, showing lower mortality with ivermectin treatment. This study was presented at a conference (IMED 2021). Submissions were peer..
Feb 25
Late Thairu et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, doi:10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36328 (date from earlier preprint)
death, ↓87.9%, p=0.12
A Comparison of Ivermectin and Non Ivermectin Based Regimen for COVID-19 in Abuja: Effects on Virus Clearance, Days-to-discharge and Mortality
Details   PSM retrospective 87 patients in Nigeria, 61 treated with ivermectin, showing lower mortality, faster recovery, and faster viral clearance with ivermectin treatment. All patients received zinc and vitamin C. A synergistic effect was seen ..
Feb 18
News Lim et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.0189 (data 11/3/21) (News)
Efficacy of Ivermectin Treatment on Disease Progression Among Adults With Mild to Moderate COVID-19 and Comorbidities: The I-TECH Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   The I-TECH RCT can be found at . Studies are listed under the date they first became available (November 3, 2021 for this study).
Feb 6
PrEPPEP Kerr et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.28624 (date from earlier preprint)
death, ↓92.0%, p=0.0008
Regular Use of Ivermectin as Prophylaxis for COVID-19 Led Up to a 92% Reduction in COVID-19 Mortality Rate in a Dose-Response Manner: Results of a Prospective Observational Study of a Strictly Controlled Population of 88,012 Subjects
Details   PSM multivariable analysis of the Itajaí trial showing significantly lower mortality with regular use of ivermectin prophylaxis. Immortal time bias may significantly affect these results.
Feb 2
Early Manomaipiboon et al., Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-022-06649-3 (date from earlier preprint)
no recov., ↓43.5%, p=0.26
Efficacy and safety of ivermectin in the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 infection: A randomized, double blind, placebo, controlled trial
Details   Small RCT with 72 low-risk patients in Thailand, showing improved recovery with ivermectin, without statistical significance. All patients recovered and there was no escalation of care in either group. There were no adverse events.
Jan 31
In Vitro Kowa News Release (News) (In Vitro)
Antiviral effect of ivermectin confirmed for omicron
Details   Kowa reports that ivermectin is effective for omicron in In Vitro research.
Jan 24
Early de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2022.01.002
death/hosp., ↓59.0%, p<0.0001
A Multimodal Strategy to Reduce the Risk of Hospitalization/death in Ambulatory Patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 28,048 COVID+ patients in Mexico, 7,898 receiving a treatment kit including low dose ivermectin, AZ, aspirin, and acetaminophen, shower lower mortality/hospitalization for those receiving the kit. Delivery of the treatment k..
Jan 23
In Vitro Liu et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.01.20.477147 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
SARS-CoV-2 Viral Genes Compromise Survival and Functions of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes via Reducing Cellular ATP Level
Details   In Vitro study showing that ivermectin and meclizine may be protective for heart muscle damage due to SARS-CoV-2.
Jan 20
In Silico Parvez et al., Immunity, Inflammation and Disease, doi:10.1002/iid3.639 (date from earlier preprint) (Preprint)
In Silico
Insights from a computational analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant: Host–pathogen interaction, pathogenicity, and possible drug therapeutics
Details   In Silico analysis of the omicron variant and 10 treatments reported effective for previous variants, predicting that all will be effective for omicron, with ivermectin showing the best results.
Jan 18
Late Zubair et al., Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, doi:10.4081/monaldi.2022.2062
death, ↑9.0%, p=1.00
The effect of ivermectin on non-severe and severe COVID-19 disease and gender-based difference of its effectiveness
Details   Retrospective 188 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, 90 treated with ivermectin, showing no significant differences with treatment. The ivermectin group had more severe disease (66% vs 58%, with 6x higher risk for severe disease patients)..
Jan 13
Early Tyson et al., Preprint (Preprint)
death, ↓99.8%, p<0.0001
Low Rates of Hospitalization and Death in 4,376 COVID-19 Patients Given Early Ambulatory Medical and Supportive Care. A Case Series and Observational Study.
Details   Retrospective 4,376 patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 in the USA treated with multiple medications including HCQ/ivermectin, favipiravir, vitamin C, D, quercetin, zinc, mAbs, budesonide, dexamethasone, prednisone, and colchicine (exact..
Dec 31
Early Abbas et al., Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.36468/pharmaceutical-sciences.spl.416
death, ↑4.0%, p=1.00
The Effect of Ivermectin on Reducing Viral Symptoms in Patients with Mild COVID-19
Details   RCT 99 ivermectin and 103 control low risk patients in China, up to 7 days from symptom onset, showing statistically significant improvement in recovery with treatment, and non-statistically significant improvements in recovery time and..
Dec 31
PrEPPEP Kerr et al., Research Gate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.26793.52327 (Preprint)
death, ↓45.0%, p=0.046
COVID-19 In-Hospital Mortality Rate is Reduced by Prophylactic Use of Ivermectin: Findings From a City-Wide, Prospective Observational Study Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM)
Details   PSM retrospective 378 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing lower mortality for patients that were on ivermectin prophylaxis before admission (not taking into account the lower risk of being hospitalized shown in the related larger stu..
Dec 31
Late Shimizu et al., Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.jiac.2021.12.024
death, ↓99.9%, p<0.001
Ivermectin administration is associated with lower gastrointestinal complications and greater ventilator-free days in ventilated patients with COVID-19: A propensity score analysis
Details   Retrospective 88 ventilated COVID-19 patients in Japan, 39 treated with ivermectin within 3 days of admission, showing significantly reduced incidence of GI complications and mortality, and increased ventilator-free days with treatment.
Dec 30
Review Semiz, S., Biomolecular Concepts, doi:10.1515/bmc-2021-0017 (Review)
SIT1 transporter as a potential novel target in treatment of COVID-19
Details   Review of the potential connections between SLC6A20/SIT1, ACE2, Type 2 Diabetes, and COVID-19 severity. This provides another potential mechanism of action for ivermectin as a partial agonist of glycine-gated chloride channels, interferin..
Dec 29
Late Mustafa et al., Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy, doi:10.1016/j.rcsop.2021.100101
death, ↓63.7%, p=0.09
Pattern of medication utilization in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in three District Headquarters Hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan
Details   Retrospective 444 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing lower mortality with ivermectin treatment in unadjusted results, not reaching statistical significance. Ivermectin was mostly used with patients in severe condition. Dose ranged..
Dec 28
Late Baguma et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint)
death, ↓96.8%, p=0.31
Characteristics of the COVID-19 patients treated at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study
Details   Retrospective COVID+ hospitalized patients in Uganda, showing no statistically significant difference in mortality with ivermectin, however there were only 7 patients receiving ivermectin.
Dec 21
Review Zaidi et al., The Journal of Antibiotics, doi:10.1038/s41429-021-00491-6 (Review)
The mechanisms of action of ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2—an extensive review
Details   Extensive review of 20 mechanisms of action of ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2.
Dec 13
Late Jamir et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.20394
death, ↑53.0%, p=0.13
Determinants of Outcome Among Critically Ill Police Personnel With COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study From Andhra Pradesh, India
Details   Retrospective 266 COVID-19 ICU patients in India, showing significantly lower mortality with PVP-I oral gargling and topical nasal use, and non-statistically significant higher mortality with ivermectin and lower mortality with remdesivir.
Dec 11
PrEPPEP Kerr et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.21272 (date from earlier preprint)
death, ↓70.0%, p<0.0001
Ivermectin Prophylaxis Used for COVID-19: A Citywide, Prospective, Observational Study of 223,128 Subjects Using Propensity Score Matching
Details   PSM retrospective 220,517 patients in Brazil,133,051 taking ivermectin as part of a citywide prophylaxis program, showing significantly lower hospitalization and mortality with treatment. CAAE:47124221.2.0000.5485. Additional results are ..
Dec 4
Safety Wentzel et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofab466.728
safety analysis
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ivermectin Safety Profile in COVID-19 Trials
Details   Systematic review and meta-analysis of safety in ivermectin COVID-19 trials, showing no significant difference in adverse events between treatment and control arms. Authors conclude that ivermectin is safe and well-tolerated.
Dec 1
Review Behl et al., Science of The Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152072 (Review)
CD147-spike protein interaction in COVID-19: Get the ball rolling with a novel receptor and therapeutic target
Details   Review of the cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) transmembrane protein as an entry route for SARS-CoV-2, correlation with observed characteristics of COVID-19, and relevant potential therapeutics including azithromycin, melatonin, sta..
Nov 26
Late Ferreira et al., Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, doi:10.1590/1806-9282.20210661
death, ↑5.0%, p=1.00
Outcomes associated with Hydroxychloroquine and Ivermectin in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a single-center experience
Details   Retrospective 230 hospitalized patients in Brazil showing no significant difference with ivermectin treatment. Authors note that the treatments were more likely to be offered to sicker patients. Authors indicate that they do not know when..
Nov 23
Late Ozer et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27469
death, ↓75.0%, p=0.09
Effectiveness and Safety of Ivermectin in COVID‐19 Patients: A Prospective Study at A Safety‐Net Hospital
Details   Small prospective PSM study in the USA, showing 75% lower mortality with ivermectin treatment, without reaching statistical significance, significantly shorter ventilation and ICU time, and longer hospitalization time. Authors leave the s..
Nov 17
PrEPPEP Samajdar et al., Journal of the Association of Physicians India, 69:11
cases, ↓79.8%, p<0.0001
Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine for Chemo-Prophylaxis of COVID-19: A Questionnaire Survey of Perception and Prescribing Practice of Physicians vis-a-vis Outcomes
Details   Physician survey in India with 164 ivermectin prophylaxis, 129 HCQ prophylaxis, and 81 control patients, showing significantly lower COVID-19 cases with treatment. Details of the treatment and control groups and the definition of cases ar..
Nov 9
Late Stone et al., Biologics, doi:10.3390/biologics2030015 (date from earlier preprint) Changes in SpO2 on Room Air for 34 Severe COVID-19 Patients after Ivermectin-Based Combination Treatment: 62% Normalization within 24 Hours
Details   Retrospective severe COVID-19 patients in Zimbabwe treated with ivermectin, doxycycline, and zinc. For 34 with SpO2 tracking, there was rapid improvement in SpO2, with 55% recovery towards SpO2=97 within 12 hours. The preprint shows furth..
Nov 3
Late Lim et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.0189 (data 11/3/21)
death, ↓69.0%, p=0.09
Efficacy of Ivermectin Treatment on Disease Progression Among Adults With Mild to Moderate COVID-19 and Comorbidities: The I-TECH Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   RCT 490 late stage (>65% lung change chest radiography at baseline) hospitalized patients in Malaysia, showing no significant differences. Mortality was 1.2% for ivermectin vs. 4% for control. If the same event rates continue, the trial w..
Oct 30
Late Rezk et al., Zagazig University Medical Journal, doi:10.21608/zumj.2021.92746.2329
death, ↓80.0%, p=0.50
miRNA-223-3p, miRNA- 2909 and Cytokines Expression in COVID-19 Patients Treated with Ivermectin
Details   Prospective 320 hospitalized moderate COVID-19+ patients in Egypt, 160 treated with ivermectin, showing lower mortality, improved recovery, and decreased cytokine expression with treatment. All patients were treated with HCQ. 7890/26-8-20..
Oct 28
PrEPPEP Verma et al., Indian Journal of Community Health, 33:3 Assessing Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices towards Ivermectin Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 among Health Care Workers
Details   Survey of 306 healthcare workers involved in the medication of COVID-19 patients in India. 71% indicated that ivermectin had a protective effect for COVID-19.
Oct 20
Review Low et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166294 (Review)
Repositioning Ivermectin for Covid-19 treatment: Molecular mechanisms of action against SARS-CoV-2 replication
Details   Review of the antiviral characteristics of ivermectin and mechanisms of action. Authors note that ivermectin has proven effective for HIV-1, Adenovirus, flu, SARS-CoV, and more; due to genomic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, t..
Oct 19
Early Borody et al., TrialSite News (Preprint)
death, ↓92.3%, p=0.03
Combination Therapy For COVID-19 Based on Ivermectin in an Australian Population
Details   Retrospective 600 PCR+ outpatients in Australia treated with ivermectin, zinc, and doxycycline, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization with treatment. This trial uses a synthetic control group, and the preliminary repor..
Oct 15
In Vitro Segatori et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13102084 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Effect of Ivermectin and Atorvastatin on Nuclear Localization of Importin Alpha and Drug Target Expression Profiling in Host Cells from Nasopharyngeal Swabs of SARS-CoV-2- Positive Patients
Details   Gene expression analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs of COVID-19 positive and negative patients, and in vitro study supporting the use of ivermectin and atorvastatin for COVID-19, and the efficacy of ivermectin at clinically relevant dosages...
Oct 14
In Vitro Jitobaom et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Favipiravir and Ivermectin Showed in Vitro Synergistic Antiviral Activity against SARS-CoV-2
Details   In Vitro study showing a strong synergistic effect of ivermectin and favipiravir. Combining multiple antiviral drugs with different mechanisms of action helps to minimize drug resistance and toxicity. For ivermectin alone, IC50 for Calu-3..
Oct 14
News Goodkin, M. (News)
Are Major Ivermectin Studies Designed for Failure?
Details   Discussion of flaws in ivermectin trials creating a bias towards not finding an effect.
Oct 7
Review Fordham et al., OSF Preprints, doi:10.31219/ (Review) (Preprint)
The uses and abuses of systematic reviews
Details   Analysis of defects in the Popp et al. meta analysis.
Oct 5
In Silico Francés-Monerris et al., Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, doi:10.1039/D1CP02967C
In Silico
Microscopic interactions between ivermectin and key human and viral proteins involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection
Details   In Silico molecular dynamics study showing that ACE2 and ACE2/RBD aggregates form persistent interactions with ivermectin.
Oct 2
N/A TrialSite News (News)
Committed to Medical Evidence, a Prominent Ivermectin Group is Eradicated from the Memories of Cyberspace
Details   Report on Twitter's censorship of the British Ivermectin Recommendation Development group.
Oct 1
Late Babalola et al., Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, doi:10.23937/2474-3658/1510233 (date from earlier preprint) A Randomized Controlled Trial of Ivermectin Monotherapy versus Hydroxychloroquine, Ivermectin, and Azithromycin Combination Therapy in COVID- 19 Patients in Nigeria
Details   Small RCT with 61 patients in Nigeria, all patients treated with ivermectin, zinc, and vitamin C, showing no significant improvements in recovery with the addition of HCQ+AZ.
Sep 23
Early Mayer et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2022.813378 (date from earlier preprint)
death, ↓55.1%, p<0.0001
Safety and Efficacy of a MEURI Program for the Use of High Dose Ivermectin in COVID-19 Patients
Details   Retrospective 21,232 patients in Argentina, 3,266 assigned to ivermectin treatment, showing lower mortality with treatment. Greater benefits were seen for patients >40, and a dose dependent response was found. For more discussion see . Se..
Sep 7
News Scheim, D., TrialsSite News (News)
Merck’s deadly Vioxx playbook, redux: a debunked smear campaign against its competing drug—the FDA-approved, Nobel prize-honored ivermectin
Details   Discussion of Merck's ivermectin statements and past actions related to Vioxx raising significant concerns.
Sep 6
Early Buonfrate et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2021.106516 (date from earlier preprint)
hosp., ↑210.7%, p=0.47
High dose ivermectin for the early treatment of COVID-19 (COVER study): a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase II, dose-finding, proof of concept trial
Details   Early terminated 89 patient RCT with 29 high dose and 32 very high dose ivermectin patients, showing dose dependent viral load reduction, although not reaching statistical significance due to early termination. Since most patients have lo..
Sep 3
Early Okogbenin et al., Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, doi:10.4103/npmj.npmj_532_21 Clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 patients treated at thisday dome isolation and treatment centre, federal capital territory Abuja, Nigeria
Details   Retrospective 300 COVID-19 patients in Nigeria treated with ivermectin, zinc, vitamin C, and azithromycin, reporting no deaths. Authors conclude that early treatment is critical.
Sep 2
Meta Marik et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001443 (meta analysis)
Ivermectin, A Reanalysis of the Data
Details   Updated meta analysis showing no significant change if Elgazzar et al. is excluded.
Sep 2
Meta Neil et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001450 (meta analysis)
Bayesian Hypothesis Testing and Hierarchical Modeling of Ivermectin Effectiveness
Details   Updated Bayesian analysis of a subset of ivermectin trials showing that there is strong evidence to support a causal link between ivermectin and COVID-19 severity and mortality, and that the result is robust in sensitivity analysis, inclu..
Aug 19
In Silico González-Paz et al., Biophysical Chemistry, doi:10.1016/j.bpc.2021.106677
In Silico
Comparative study of the interaction of ivermectin with proteins of interest associated with SARS-CoV-2: A computational and biophysical approach
Details   In Silico analysis of the components of ivermectin (avermectin-B1a and avermectin-B1b), suggesting different and complementary inhibitory activity of each component, with an affinity of avermectin-B1b for viral structures, and of avermect..
Aug 17
In Silico González-Paz et al., Journal of Molecular Liquids, doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2021.117284
In Silico
Structural Deformability Induced in Proteins of Potential Interest Associated with COVID-19 by binding of Homologues present in Ivermectin: Comparative Study Based in Elastic Networks Models
Details   In Silico elastic network model analysis of ivermectin components (avermectin-B1a and avermectin-B1b) providing a biophysical and computational perspective of proposed multi-target activity of ivermectin for COVID-19.
Aug 16
Review Kory, P., Substack (Review) (Preprint)
Summary of the Evidence for Ivermectin in COVID-19
Details   Summary of the evidence base for ivermectin and COVID-19 including in vitro and in silico studies, animal studies, pharmacologic studies, clinical observation and experience, observational controlled trials, randomized controlled trials, ..
Aug 12
Late Elavarasi et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.08.10.21261855 (Preprint)
death, ↓19.6%, p=0.12
Clinical features, demography and predictors of outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a tertiary care hospital in India - a cohort study
Details   Retrospective 2017 hospitalized patients in India, showing lower mortality with ivermectin treatment in unadjusted results. No group details are provided and this result is subject to confounding by indication.
Aug 12
N/A Pedroso et al., The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.bjid.2021.101603 Self-prescribed Ivermectin use is associated with a lower rate of seroconversion in health care workers diagnosed with COVID, in a dose-dependent response
Details   Retrospective 45 healthcare workes in Brazil, showing lower creation of antibodies with multiple doses of ivermectin, which may be expected due to the antiviral activity as demonstrated in multiple studies. Authors appear unaware of these..
Aug 10
Early La Pampa, Argentina (News)
death, ↓27.4%
La Pampa expondrá a la comunidad científica los resultados del Programa de Intervención Monitoreado de Ivermectina
Details   News report on the use of ivermectin in La Pampa, Argentina, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Aug 6
Review Kow et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001441 (Review)
Pitfalls in Reporting Sample Size Calculation Across Randomized Controlled Trials Involving Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19
Details   Review of sample size calculations in ivermectin RCTs, showing that existing RCTs are very underpowered.
Aug 6
Early Reis et al., New England Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2115869 (results released 8/6/2021)
death, ↓12.0%, p=0.68
Effect of Early Treatment with Ivermectin among Patients with Covid-19
Details   Many major issues including multiple impossible numbers, blinding failure, randomization failure, and many protocol violations , as detailed below. Submit Updates or Corrections See also Fraudulent Trial On Ivermectin Published By The Wor..
Aug 5
In Silico Rana et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint)
In Silico
A Computational Study of Ivermectin and Doxycycline Combination Drug Against SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Details   In silico study showing strong binding affinity of ivermectin and doxycycline for SARS-CoV-2 main protease 3CLpro, and increased binding affinity for the combination of both.
Aug 3
Review Santin et al., New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2021.100924 (Review)
Ivermectin: a multifaceted drug of Nobel prize-honored distinction with indicated efficacy against a new global scourge, COVID-19
Details   Review concluding that the evidence supports worldwide use of ivermectin for COVID-19, complementary to immunization. Authors note that it is likely non-epitope specific, possibly retaining efficacy with new viral strains. They note that ..
Jul 31
Early, Late Sathi et al., Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.11 Clinical Effect of the Combination Therapy of Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin and Ivermectin in Patients with COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of 85 COVID-19 patients including 8 ICU patients treated with ivermectin, HCQ, and AZ, showing all patients improving except for one patient that died 3 days after admission. Authors recommend early treatment. There was ..
Jul 28
Meta Popp et al., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD015017.pub2 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19
Details   This meta analysis is designed to exclude most studies. Authors select a small subset of studies, with a majority of results based on only 1 or 2 studies. Authors split up studies which dilutes the effects and results in a lack of statist..
Jul 25
Early Ontai et al., Epidemiology International Journal, doi:10.23880/eij-16000217 Early multidrug treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and decreased case fatality rates in Honduras
Details   Report on the nationwide implementation of multi-drug COVID-19 inpatient and outpatient treatment protocols in Honduras, showing a case fatality rate decrease from 9.33% to 2.97%. No decrease was seen in Mexico, a similar Latin American c..
Jul 24
News World Ivermectin Day (News)
World Ivermectin Day
Details   Joint event by 22 worldwide organizations.
Jul 23
Safety Mansour et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108004
safety analysis
Safety of inhaled ivermectin as a repurposed direct drug for treatment of COVID-19: A preclinical tolerance study
Details   Safety analysis of an inhaled lyophilized ivermectin formulation, showing 127-fold increase in drug solubility, and identifying safe dosage levels in rats.
Jul 16
News FLCCC Alliance and British Ivermectin Recommendation Development Group (News)
Joint Statement of the FLCCC Alliance and British Ivermectin Recommendation Development Group on Retraction of Early Research on Ivermectin
Details   News release noting that ivermectin remains effective after excluding Elgazzar et al. Given the large magnitude effects and 61 studies, excluding one study with ~3% of patients does not significantly change the evidence base.
Jul 12
Meta Neil et al., ResearchGate, doi:0.13140/RG.2.2.31800.88323 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Bayesian Meta Analysis of Ivermectin Effectiveness in Treating Covid-19 Disease
Details   Bayesian analysis of a subset of ivermectin trial data concluding that there is overwhelming evidence to support a causal link between ivermectin, COVID-19 severity, and mortality.
Jul 8
In Silico Muthusamy et al., Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research
In Silico
Virtual Screening Reveals Potential Anti-Parasitic Drugs Inhibiting the Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein
Details   In Silico study identifying 32 anti-parisitic compounds effectively inhibiting the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with ivermectin being one of the top compounds.
Jul 7
Late Hazan et al., Future Microbiology, doi:10.2217/fmb-2022-0014 (date from earlier preprint)
death, ↓86.2%, p=0.04
Effectiveness of ivermectin-based multidrug therapy in severely hypoxic, ambulatory COVID-19 patients
Details   Small study of 24 consecutive patients in serious condition (9 days post symptoms, mean SpO2 87.4) using combined treatment with ivermectin, doxycycline, zinc, vitamin D, and vitamin C, showing no mortality or hospitalization with treatme..
Jul 3
News Open Letter, Statement of Concern and Request for Retraction, re: Roman et al. (News)
Open Letter, Statement of Concern and Request for Retraction
Details   Open letter signed by 40 physicians detailing errors and flaws in the Roman et al. meta analysis, and requesting retraction.
Jul 2
Review Adegboro et al., African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, doi:10.4314/ajcem.v22i3.2 (Review)
A review of the anti-viral effects of ivermectin
Details   Review of the antiviral effects of ivermectin.
Jul 2
Early Vallejos et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06348-5
death, ↑33.5%, p=0.70
Ivermectin to prevent hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19 (IVERCOR-COVID19) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Details   RCT with 501 relatively low-risk outpatients in Argentina showing hospitalization OR 0.65 [0.32-1.31]. With only 7% hospitalization, this trial is underpowered. The trial primarily includes low-risk patients that recover quickly without t..
Jun 30
Review Turkia, M., ResearchGate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.16973.36326 (Review) (Preprint)
A Continuation of a Timeline of Ivermectin-Related Events in the COVID-19 Pandemic [June 30, 2021]
Details   An extension of the ivermectin timeline covering April - June 2021, including WHO's role and funding, Gavi, COVAX, Trusted News Initiative, International Fact-Checking Network, the role of private philantrophy, Frontiers, comparison to th..
Jun 28
N/A Roman et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciab591 (date from earlier preprint) (meta analysis)
Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Details   This is a severely flawed meta analysis. An open letter signed by 40 physicians detailing errors and flaws, and requesting retraction, can be found at [ ] . See also [ ] . Authors cherry-pick to include on..