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Database of all ivermectin COVID-19 studies. 90 studies, 50 peer reviewed, 53 with results comparing treatment and control groups. Submit updates/corrections below. FLCCC provides treatment recommendations.
 
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5/6
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis v73 Ivermectin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 53 studies
• 98% of the 53 studies to date report positive effects (25 statistically significant in isolation). • Random effects meta-analysis with pooled effects shows 81% and 85% improvement for early treatment and prophylaxis (RR 0.19 [0.10-0.39..
5/5
In Vitro Zatloukal et al. (News) (In Vitro) news News report on In Vitro results from the research institute of Prof. Zatloukal
News report on In Vitro results from the research institute of Prof. Zatloukal, showing that "ivermectin was able to reduce virus replication by a factor of 1,000 even at low concentrations".
5/4
Meta Karale et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.30.21256415 (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis A Meta-analysis of Mortality, Need for ICU admission, Use of Mechanical Ventilation and Adverse Effects with Ivermectin Use in COVID-19 Patients
Systematic review and meta analysis with 30 studies included in quantitative analysis, showing mortality OR 0.39 [0.22-0.70]. Subgroup analysis of trials with severity data showed mortality OR 0.10 [0.03-0.33] for mild/moderate cases.
4/30
Review Kory et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001377 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis) review Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
Review of ivermectin trials and epidemiological data, concluding that ivermectin is effective for prophylaxis and treatment, and should be globally and systematically deployed in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
4/19
Review DiNicolantonio et al., Open Heart, doi:10.1136/openhrt-2021-001655 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Anti-inflammatory activity of ivermectin in late-stage COVID-19 may reflect activation of systemic glycine receptors
Review suggesting that the effectiveness of ivermectin in the cytokine storm phase of COVID-19 may be, at least in part, an anti-inflammatory effect mediated by increased activation of glycine receptors on leukocytes and possibly vascular..
4/17
Early Loue et al., J. Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, doi:10.23937/2474-3658/1510202 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓70.0%, p=0.34 Ivermectin and COVID-19 in Care Home: Case Report
Small quasi-randomized (patient choice) study with 25 PCR+ patients in a nursing home offered ivermectin, of which 10 chose to be treated. The mean age was 83.5 in the treatment group and 81.8 in the control group. There was lower mortali..
4/16
PrEPPEP Morgenstern et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.10.21255248 (Preprint) hosp., ↓80.0%, p=0.50 Retrospective cohort study of Ivermectin as a SARS-CoV-2 pre-exposure prophylactic method in Healthcare Workers
Propensity matched retrospective prophylaxis study of healthcare workers in the Dominican Republic showing significantly lower cases with treatment, and no hospitalization with treatment (versus 2 in the PSM matched control group). The ca..
4/14
PrEPPEP Seet et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.035 (Peer Reviewed) severe case, ↓49.8%, p=0.01 Positive impact of oral hydroxychloroquine and povidone-iodine throat spray for COVID-19 prophylaxis: an open-label randomized trial
Prophylaxis RCT in Singapore with 3,037 low risk patients, showing lower serious cases, lower symptomatic cases, and lower confirmed cases of COVID-19 with all treatments (ivermectin, HCQ, PVP-I, and Zinc + vitamin C) compared to vitamin ..
4/10
In Silico Bello et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2021.1911857 (Peer Reviewed) Elucidation of the inhibitory activity of ivermectin with host nuclear importin α and several SARS-CoV-2 targets
In Silico analysis finding that the in vitro activity of ivermectin may explained by acting as an inhibitor of importin-α, dimeric 3CLpro, and Nsp9.
4/3
Review Turkia, M., Research Gate (Review) (Preprint) review A timeline of ivermectin-related events in the COVID-19 pandemic
An extensive timeline of ivermectin-related events from April 2020 to March 2021 including studies, news, health authority decisions, biased news coverage, and censorship. The author concludes that in a broader historical perspective, th..
4/1
Early Mourya et al., Int. J. Health and Clinical Research (Peer Reviewed) viral+, ↓89.4%, p<0.0001 Comparative Analytical Study of Two Different Drug Regimens in Treatment of Covid 19 Positive Patients in Index Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Indore, India
Retrospective 100 patients in India with 50 treated with ivermectin, and SOC for all patients including HCQ+AZ, showing much higher viral clearance with ivermectin. Baseline clinical status was worse in the control group. Time of testing ..
3/30
Early Chahla et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.29.21254554 (Preprint) no disch., ↓89.1%, p=0.005 Ivermectin reproposing for COVID-19 treatment outpatients in mild stage in primary health care centers
Cluster RCT outpatients in Argentina showing signficantly faster recovery with ivermectin. There were no deaths. Cluster RCT where outpatients in Tucumán were assigned to the ivermectin group and outpatients from San Miguel de Tucumán and..
3/29
Meta Kow et al., Pharmacological Reports, doi:10.1007/s43440-021-00245-z (Peer Reviewed) meta-analysis The association between the use of ivermectin and mortality in patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis
Small meta analysis of 6 RCTs showing mortality OR 0.21 [0.11-0.42]. Authors do not include two more recent RCTs with mortality results, 10 other studies with mortality results, and a total of 42 other studies including other outcomes. Au..
3/26
PrEPPEP Tanioka et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.26.21254377 (Preprint) death, ↓88.2%, p=0.002 Why COVID-19 is not so spread in Africa: How does Ivermectin affect it?
Retrospective study of the 31 onchocerciasis-endemic countries using the community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) and the 22 non-endemic countries in Africa, showing significantly lower mortality per capita in the countries us..
3/25
In Silico Udofia et al., Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, doi:10.1007/s13721-021-00299-2 (Peer Reviewed) In silico studies of selected multi-drug targeting against 3CLpro and nsp12 RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV
In Silico analysis finding that ivermectin had the highest binding energy against the 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2 and RdRps of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.
3/25
In Silico Choudhury et al., Future Medicine, doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0342 (Peer Reviewed) Exploring the binding efficacy of ivermectin against the key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis: an in silico approach
In Silico analysis finding that ivermectin has high binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein, main protease, replicase, and human TMPRSS2 receptors.
3/25
Late Huvemek Press Release (Preprint) no improv., ↓31.6%, p=0.28 Kovid-19 - Huvemek® Phase 2 clinical trial
Phase 2 results from a multicenter RCT of hospitalized patients in Bulgaria showing faster viral clearance, greater clinical improvement, and improved biomarkers with treatment. Ivermectin was taken on an empty stomach, potentially reduci..
3/24
Review Yagisawa et al., The Japanese Journal of Antibiotics, 74-1, Mar 2021 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Global trends in clinical studies of ivermectin in COVID-19
Review of ivermectin for COVID-19. Authors note that Kitasato University's project was expanded in response to the results of Caly et al. which had left questions regarding in vivo therapeutic levels, and the results of those studies were..
3/21
Early Emmerich et al., Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18073371 (Peer Reviewed) Comparisons between the Neighboring States of Amazonas and Pará in Brazil in the Second Wave of COVID-19 Outbreak and a Possible Role of Early Ambulatory Treatment
Comparison between the two largest neighboring states in Brazil, Amazonas and Pará, showing more than 5 times lower mortality in Pará during the second wave when the Pará government supported early treatment and Amazonas did not, compared..
3/18
Late Del Franco et al., Journal of Biomedical Research and Clinical Investigation, doi:10.31546/2633-8653.1008 (Peer Reviewed) Ivermectin in Long-Covid Patients: A Retrospective Study
Retrospective 856 patients previously admitted to hospital for COVID-19 in Argentina, finding that ivermectin improved recovery from "long covid" symptoms.
3/12
Early Roy et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.08.21252883 (Preprint) recov. time, ↓5.6%, p=0.87 Outcome of Different Therapeutic Interventions in Mild COVID-19 Patients in a Single OPD Clinic of West Bengal: A Retrospective study
Retrospective database analysis of 56 mild COVID-19 patients, all treated with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc, comparing ivermectin + doxycycline (n=14), AZ (n=13), HCQ (n=14), and SOC (n=15), finding that all groups recover quickly, and ..
3/11
Meta Nardelli et al., Signa Vitae, doi:10.22514/sv.2021.043 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓79.5%, p<0.0001 Crying wolf in time of Corona: the strange case of ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine. Is the fear of failure withholding potential life-saving treatment from clinical use?
Meta analysis of RCT mortality results showing RR 0.19, p < 0.00001.
3/11
Meta Scheim et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) meta-analysis Ivermectin sales in Valle del Cauca, Colombia, patterns of AEs, and other background re López-Medina et al. 2021
Analysis of several issues with López-Medina et al. including the atypical adverse effects in the control arm and population use of ivermectin.
3/11
Meta Bryant et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-317485/v1 (OSF preprints 3/11) (Preprint) death, ↓68.0%, p=0.006 Ivermectin for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta analysis of 21 RCTs finding mortality RR 0.32 [0.14-0.72], and prophylaxis case RR 0.14 [0.09-0.21].
3/11
Meta Scheim et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) meta-analysis Protocol violations in López-Medina et al.: 38 switched ivermectin (IVM) and placebo doses, failure of blinding, widespread IVM sales OTC in Cali, and nearly identical AEs for the IVM and control groups
Report on protocol violations in López-Medina et al.
3/10
In Vitro Yesilbag et al., Virus Research, doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198384 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Ivermectin also inhibits the replication of bovine respiratory viruses (BRSV, BPIV-3, BoHV-1, BCoV and BVDV) in vitro
In Vitro study showing that ivermectin can inhibit infection of bovine respiratory disease viral agents BCoV, BPIV-3, BVDV, BRSV and BoHV-1 at the concentrations of 2.5 and 5 μM and in a dose-dependent manner.
3/9
Late Pott-Junior et al., Toxicology Reports, doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.003 (Peer Reviewed) ventilation, ↓85.2%, p=0.25 Use of ivermectin in the treatment of Covid-19: a pilot trial
Small RCT with 4 control patients and 28 ivermectin patients split across 3 different dosage levels, showing lower (non-statistically significant) ICU admission with treatment. Authors suggest that ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2 is safe and re..
3/8
Early Chamie-Quintero et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) Ivermectin for COVID-19 in Peru: 14-fold reduction in nationwide excess deaths, p=.002 for effect by state, then 13-fold increase after ivermectin use restricted
Analysis of ivermectin use in Peru concluding that ivermectin most likely caused 14 times reductions in excess deaths in Peru, prior to 13 times increase after reversal of ivermectin use. Authors conclude that the results strongly suggest..
3/8
Late Guzman et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.04.21252084 (Preprint) Factors associated with increased mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients in a Mexican public hospital: the other faces of health system oversaturation
Retrospective 196 critically ill patients in Mexico. Patients overlap with the existing RCT by Beltran-Gonzalez (NCT04391127). This preprint shows a larger treated population and greater (non-statistically significant) improvement with iv..
3/8
Late Galan et al., Pathogens and Global Health, doi:10.1080/20477724.2021.1890887 (Peer Reviewed) Phase 2 randomized study on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized patients with severe manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection
RCT 168 very late stage severe condition hospitalized patients comparing CQ, HCQ, and ivermectin not showing significant differences. Authors were unable to add a control arm due to ethical issues. Authors claim that "the mortality ..
3/5
Safety Descotes, J., ImmunoSafe Consultance (Preprint) safety analysis Medical Safety of Ivermectin
Safety analysis of >350 articles showing that ivermectin has an excellent safety profile. The author notes that "no severe adverse event has been reported in dozens of completed or ongoing studies involving thousands of participants..
3/4
Early López-Medina et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2021.3071 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓66.8%, p=0.50 Effect of Ivermectin on Time to Resolution of Symptoms Among Adults With Mild COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
An open letter, signed by >100 physicians, concluding this study is fatally flawed can be found at [1]. Phone survey based RCT with low risk patients, 200 ivermectin and 198 control, showing lower mortality, lower disease progression, lo..
3/1
In Silico Saha et al., Structural Chemistry, doi:10.1007/s11224-021-01776-0 (preprint 3/1) (Peer Reviewed) The Binding mechanism of ivermectin and levosalbutamol with spike protein of SARS-CoV-2
In SIlico analysis predicting that ivermectin has a large binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Three different computer modeling techniques show that ivermectin can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entrance via hACE2.
2/23
Late Gonzalez et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.18.21252037 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓14.4%, p=1.00 Efficacy and safety of Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized controlled trial
RCT late stage severe condition (93% SOFA ≥ 2, 96% APACHE ≥ 8) high comorbidity hospitalized patients in Mexico with 36 low dose ivermectin and 37 control patients not finding significant differences. NCT04391127.
2/20
News BIRD Meeting 20th February 2021 (News) news BIRD Meeting 20th February 2021
The British Ivermectin Recommendation Development (BIRD) panel, with dozens of multi-national scientists & doctors, issued sweeping recommendations for the immediate global use of ivermectin.
2/16
Early Elalfy et al., J. Med. Virol., doi:10.1002/jmv.26880 (Peer Reviewed) viral+, ↓86.9%, p<0.0001 Effect of a combination of Nitazoxanide, Ribavirin and Ivermectin plus zinc supplement (MANS.NRIZ study) on the clearance of mild COVID-1
Non-randomized controlled trial with 62 mild and early moderate patients with home treatment with ivermectin + nitazoxanide + ribavirin + zinc, showing significantly faster viral clearance.
2/15
PrEPPEP Behera et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-208785/v1 (Preprint) cases, ↓83.0%, p<0.001 Prophylactic role of ivermectin in SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers
Prospective prophylaxis study with 3,532 healthcare workers, 2,199 receiving two-dose ivermectin prophylaxis, showing adjusted relative risk of confirmed COVID-19 with treatment 0.17 [0.12-0.23] p<0.001. 186 patients took only the first ..
2/12
Early Schwartz, E., International Ivermectin for Covid Conference, April 24-25, 2021 (Preprint) hosp., ↓70.2%, p=0.34 Ivermectin vs. placebo treatment in non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 - a double blind, randomized controlled trial
Double blind RCT for mild-moderate COVID-19 outpatients in Israel showing significantly faster reduction in viral load with treatment, and lower hospitalization with treatment. The one treatment hospitalization was a few hours after treat..
2/10
Late Lima-Morales (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓77.7%, p<0.001 Effectiveness of a multidrug therapy consisting of ivermectin, azithromycin, montelukast and acetylsalicylic acid to prevent hospitalization and death among ambulatory COVID-19 cases in Tlaxcala, Mexico
Prospective trial of 768 COVID-19 outpatients in Mexico, 481 treated with ivermectin, AZ, montelukast, and aspirin, and 287 control patients with various treatments, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization, and significa..
2/2
Early Mohan et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-191648/v1 (Preprint) no recov., ↓62.5%, p=0.27 Ivermectin in mild and moderate COVID-19 (RIVET-COV): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
RCT in India with low risk patients, comparing 24mg ivermectin, 12mg ivermectin, and placebo showing non-statistically significant improvements in recovery and PCR+ status (day 5 both arms, day 7 24mg only) with treatment, and showing gre..
1/29
Meta Cobos-Campos et al., Clin. Res. Trials, 2021, doi:10.15761/CRT.1000333 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Potential use of ivermectin for the treatment and profilaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection: Efficacy of ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2
Review finding that there appears to be sufficient evidence to recommend ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19, especially in the early stages of the disease.
1/27
Meta Castaneda-Sabogal et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.26.21250420 (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Outcomes of Ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Student-written meta analysis of a very small subset of studies exhibiting very high bias and significant flaws. Some of the problems: - As of the publication date, there are 35 studies, authors include only 4. (They list 5, but two are ..
1/25
In Silico Eweas et al., Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.592908 (Peer Reviewed) Molecular Docking Reveals Ivermectin and Remdesivir as Potential Repurposed Drugs Against SARS-CoV-2
Molecular docking analysis showing that ivermectin efficiently binds to the viral S protein as well as the human cell surface receptors ACE-2 and TMPRSS2; therefore, it might be involved in inhibiting the entry of the virus into the host ..
1/23
Animal Errecalde et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.xphs.2021.01.017 (Peer Reviewed) animal study Safety and Pharmacokinetic Assessments of a Novel Ivermectin Nasal Spray Formulation in a Pig Model
Animal study of a novel spray formulation of ivermectin, showing an advantage of the spray formulation in terms of fast attainment of high and persistent ivermectin concentrations in nasopharyngeal tissue.
1/21
Early Chamie-Quintero et al., Preprint, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3765018 (Preprint) Sharp Reductions in COVID-19 Case Fatalities and Excess Deaths in Peru in Close Time Conjunction, State-By-State, with Ivermectin Treatments
Analysis of ivermectin usage within states in Peru showing sharp reductions in COVID-19 deaths corresponding to the usage of ivermectin treatment.
1/20
In Vitro Mody et al., Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-020-01577-x (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Identification of 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLPro) inhibitors as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents
Computational molecular modeling screening and in vitro analysis for inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 specific 3CLpro enzyme, showing that ivermectin blocked more than 85% of 3CLpro activity of SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral activity of ivermectin..
1/19
Late Rezai et al., IRCT20111224008507N3 (Preprint) recov. time, ↓21.2%, p=0.02 Effectiveness of Ivermectin in the Treatment of Coronavirus Infection in Patients admitted to Educational Hospitals of Mazandaran in 2020
RCT in Iran showing shorter time to clinical recovery with Ivermectin. Results are from: [1] Trial details: [2] (double blind according to the trial registration)
1/19
Meta Hill et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-148845/v1 (Preprint) (meta analysis) death, ↓75.0%, p=0.0002 Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection
Meta analysis of 18 ivermectin RCTs with 2,282 patients showing faster viral clearance (dose and duration dependent), improved clinical recovery, and lower hospitalization and mortality. In six RCTs of moderate or severe infection, there ..