COVID-19 studies:  C19 studies: C19:  IvermectinIVM Vitamin DV.D HC QHC Q Vitamin CV.C ZincZn PVP-IPVP-I FLVFLV REGNR2 LY-CoVLY RemdesivirRMD
  Meta AnalysisMeta
Database of all ivermectin COVID-19 studies. 63 studies, 28 peer reviewed, 42 with results comparing treatment and control groups. Submit updates/corrections below. FLCCC provides treatment recommendations.
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Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis v36 Ivermectin is effective for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 42 studies
• 100% of the 42 studies to date report positive effects. Random effects meta-analysis for early treatment and pooled effects shows a reduction of 83%, RR 0.17 [0.11-0.28]. Prophylactic use shows a reduction of 89%, RR 0.11 [0.05-0.23]. M..
Late Beltran-Gonzalez et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.18.21252037 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓14.4%, p=1.00 Efficacy and safety of Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized controlled trial
RCT late stage severe condition (93% SOFA ≥ 2, 96% APACHE ≥ 8) high comorbidity hospitalized patients in Mexico with 36 low dose ivermectin and 37 control patients not finding significant differences. NCT04391127
News BIRD Meeting 20th February 2021 (News) news BIRD Meeting 20th February 2021
The British Ivermectin Recommendation Development (BIRD) panel, with dozens of multi-national scientists & doctors, issued sweeping recommendations for the immediate global use of ivermectin.
Early Elalfy et al., J. Med. Virol., doi:10.1002/jmv.26880 (Peer Reviewed) viral+, ↓86.9%, p<0.0001 Effect of a combination of Nitazoxanide, Ribavirin and Ivermectin plus zinc supplement (MANS.NRIZ study) on the clearance of mild COVID-1
Non-randomized controlled trial with 62 mild and early moderate patients with home treatment with ivermectin + nitazoxanide + ribavirin + zinc, showing significantly faster viral clearance.
PrEPPEP Behera et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) cases, ↓83.0%, p<0.001 Prophylactic role of ivermectin in SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers
Prospective prophylaxis study with 3,532 healthcare workers, 2,199 receiving two-dose ivermectin prophylaxis, showing adjusted relative risk of confirmed COVID-19 with treatment 0.17 [0.12-0.23] p<0.001. 186 patients took only the first ..
Early Schwartz, E., Sheba Ivermectin Project (Preprint) hosp., ↓80.7%, p=0.23 Ivermectin vs. placebo treatment in non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 - A double blind, randomized controlled trial
Double blind RCT for mild-moderate COVID-19 outpatients in Israel showing significantly faster reduction in viral load with treatment, and zero hospitalizations with treatment compared with 2 for the control group. There were no safety i..
Late Lima-Morales (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓77.7%, p<0.001 Effectiveness of a multidrug therapy consisting of ivermectin, azithromycin, montelukast and acetylsalicylic acid to prevent hospitalization and death among ambulatory COVID-19 cases in Tlaxcala, Mexico
Prospective trial of 768 COVID-19 outpatients in Mexico, 481 treated with ivermectin, AZ, montelukast, and aspirin, and 287 control patients with various treatments, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization, and significa..
Late Bukhari et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.02.21250840 (Preprint) viral+, ↓82.4%, p<0.0001 Efficacy of Ivermectin in COVID-19 Patients with Mild to Moderate Disease
RCT of relatively low risk hospitalized patients with 50 ivermectin and 50 control patients showing significantly faster viral clearance with treatment. There were no safety concerns. No mortality was reported. The numbers in Table 3 are ..
Early Mohan et al. (Preprint) no recov., ↓62.5%, p=0.27 Ivermectin in mild and moderate COVID-19 (RIVET-COV): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
RCT in India with low risk patients, comparing 24mg ivermectin, 12mg ivermectin, and placebo showing non-statistically significant improvements in recovery and PCR+ status (day 5 both arms, day 7 24mg only) with treatment, and showing gre..
Meta Castaneda-Sabogal et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.26.21250420 (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Outcomes of Ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Student-written meta analysis of a very small subset of studies. This is the most biased and flawed COVID-19 meta analysis we have seen, exceeding even Fiolet. Some of the problems: - As of the publication date, there are 35 studies, au..
Early Chamie-Quintero et al., Preprint, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3765018 (Preprint) Sharp Reductions in COVID-19 Case Fatalities and Excess Deaths in Peru in Close Time Conjunction, State-By-State, with Ivermectin Treatments
Analysis of ivermectin usage within states in Peru showing sharp reductions in COVID-19 deaths corresponding to the usage of ivermectin treatment.
In Vitro Mody et al., Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-020-01577-x (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Identification of 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLPro) inhibitors as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents
Computational molecular modeling screening and in vitro analysis for inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 specific 3CLpro enzyme, showing that ivermectin blocked more than 85% of 3CLpro activity of SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral activity of ivermectin..
Late Rezai et al., IRCT20111224008507N3 (Preprint) recov. time, ↓21.2%, p=0.02 Effectiveness of Ivermectin in the Treatment of Coronavirus Infection in Patients admitted to Educational Hospitals of Mazandaran in 2020
RCT in Iran showing shorter time to clinical recovery with Ivermectin. Results are from: [1]
Meta Hill et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection
Meta analysis of 18 ivermectin RCTs with 2,282 patients showing faster viral clearance (dose and duration dependent), improved clinical recovery, and lower hospitalization and mortality. In six RCTs of moderate or severe infection, there ..
Early Raad et al., ChiCTR2000033627 (Preprint) hosp., ↓85.7%, p=0.24 In vivo use of ivermectin (IVR) for treatment for corona virus infected patients (COVID-19): a randomized controlled trial
RCT in Lebanon showing significantly lower viral load at day 3, and lower hospitalization. Results are from: [1]
Early Asghar et al., NCT04392713 (Preprint) viral+, ↓82.1%, p<0.001 Efficacy of Ivermectin in COVID-19
RCT with 103 patients in Pakistan comparing ivermectin and CQ, showing significantly lower PCR+ at day 7 with ivermectin. Results from [1].
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Kory et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.643369 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
Meta analysis of ivermectin clinical studies and natural experiments where ivermectin has been widely used, showing efficacy of ivermectin in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19.
Late Okumuş et al., NCT04646109 (Preprint) death, ↓33.3%, p=0.55 Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety of Adding Ivermectin to Treatment in Severe COVID-19 Patients
Small RCT for severe COVID-19 comparing the addition of ivermectin to SOC (low dose HCQ+AZ+favipiravir), with 30 treatment and 30 control patients in Turkey, showing lower mortality and faster clinical recovery. Authors also investigate t..
PrEPPEP Chahla et al., NCT04701710 (Preprint) cases, ↓94.7%, p=0.003 Prophylaxis Covid-19 in Healthcare Agents by Intensive Treatment With Ivermectin and Iota-carrageenan (Ivercar-Tuc)
Prophylaxis RCT for ivermectin and iota-carrageenan in Argentina with 234 healthcare workers showing significantly lower cases with treatment. No paper is available yet but results are reported on
N/A Bousquet-Melou et al., Preprint, doi:10.22541/au.161047848.80388481/v1 (Preprint) dosing study Large Impact of obesity on the disposition of ivermectin, moxidectin and eprinomectin in a canine model: relevance for COVID-19 patients
Animal dosing study with an obese dog model concluding that ivermectin maintenance doses should be based on lean body weight and not the total body weight in obese subjects, while the loading dose should be based on the total body weight.
Early Kirti et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.05.21249310 (Preprint) death, ↓88.7%, p=0.12 Ivermectin as a potential treatment for mild to moderate COVID-19: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial
RCT with 112 mild and moderate COVID-19 patients in India, showing lower mortality, ventilation, and ICU admission, although not statistically significant due to the small number of events. There was no mortality in the treatment arm (55 ..
Early Chamie, J. (News) news COVID-19 in Mexico
Comparison of COVID-19 death rates in Mexico showing that the only state using ivermectin has a dramatically lower rate.
Early Babalola et al., QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcab035 (preprint 1/6) (Peer Reviewed) viral+, ↓63.9%, p=0.11 Ivermectin shows clinical benefits in mild to moderate COVID19: A randomised controlled double-blind, dose-response study in Lagos
Small RCT comparing ivermectin 6mg & 12mg q84hr with lopinavir/ritonavir, showing a statistically significant and dose dependent effect of ivermectin on reducing the time to PCR-.
PrEPPEP Hirsch et al., Microbiology & Infectious Diseases (Peer Reviewed) Ivermectin as Prophylaxis Against COVID-19 Retrospective Cases Evaluation
Report on ivermectin prophylaxis for healthcare workers in a hospital in Argentina, showing 0 cases in the 162 participants. Dosage was 0.2mg/kg weekly for eight weeks, followed by 4 months rest.
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Lawrie et al., Preprint (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Ivermectin reduces the risk of death from COVID-19 – a rapid review and meta-analysis in support of the recommendation of the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance
Meta analysis confirming the effectiveness of ivermectin for COVID-19, showing ivermectin treatment mortality relative risk RR 0.17 [0.18-0.35] and prophylaxis cases RR 0.12 [0.08-0.18].
Late Wijaya et al., Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, 47:7 (Peer Reviewed) Ivermectin as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for COVID-19 – case studies
Case report on 3 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with significant clinical and radiological improvement after a single dose of ivermectin.
Animal Madrid et al., Heliyon, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05820 (Peer Reviewed) animal study Safety of oral administration of high doses of ivermectin by means of biocompatible polyelectrolytes formulation
In vivo analysis of the safety of high dose ivermectin with a Corydoras fish animal model.
Review McCullough et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.264 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Multifaceted highly targeted sequential multidrug treatment of early ambulatory high-risk SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19)
Review urging early treatment of COVID-19 with sequential multidrug treatment that has been shown to be safe and effective. Proposed treatment includes zinc, vitamin D & C, quercetin, and depending on age, comorbidities, and symptoms may ..
Early Procter et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.260 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical outcomes after early ambulatory multidrug therapy for high-risk SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection
Retrospective 922 outpatients, with 320 treated early due to age>50 or comorbidities, showing 2.2% hospitalization and 0.3% death, which authors note is considerably lower than reported in other studies in their region. At least two of z..
Meta Hill, A., Preprint (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Meta-analysis of clinical trials of ivermectin to treat COVID-19 infection
WHO-funded meta analysis showing ivermectin treatment mortality relative risk RR 0.17 [0.08-0.35] for RCTs and RR 0.28 [0.13-0.62] for RCTs and observational studies, and confirming a dose-response effect.
In Vitro Jeffreys et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.12.23.424232 (Preprint) (In Vitro) in vitro Remdesivir-Ivermectin combination displays synergistic interaction with improved in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2
In Vitro study showing enhanced antiviral activity of ivermectin and remdesivir in combination.
PrEPPEP Vallejos et al., Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-020-04813-1 (Preprint) cases, ↓73.6%, p<0.0001 Ivermectin to prevent hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19 (IVERCOR-COVID19): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Report on ivermectin + carrageenan prophylaxis in a hospital in Argentina showing lower cases for healthcare workers taking ivermectin. The effect is likely to be primarily due to ivermectin - the creator of the protocol has later reporte..
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Kory et al., FLCCC Alliance (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
Meta analysis of ivermectin clinical studies and natural experiments where ivermectin has been widely used, showing efficacy of ivermectin in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19.
PrEPPEP Alam et al., European Journal ofMedical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.6.599 (Peer Reviewed) cases, ↓90.6%, p<0.0001 Ivermectin as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 among Healthcare Providers in a Selected Tertiary Hospital in Dhaka – An Observational Study
91% reduction in COVID-19 cases with ivermectin prophylaxis. 118 healthcare workers in Bangladesh, 58 receiving ivermectin 12mg monthly, showing RR 0.094, p < 0.0001.
Early Afsar et al., SSRN (Preprint) symptoms, ↓92.2%, p=0.04 Ivermectin Use Associated with Reduced Duration of COVID-19 Febrile Illness in a Community Setting
Small 95 patient study in Pakistan adding ivermectin to standard of care (HCQ+AZ) for outpatients with mild/moderate suspected COVID-19, showing faster resolution of fever with ivermectin. The low dose HCQ used in this study may not reac..
Early Hussain et al., International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology, doi:10.25259/IJMIO_30_2020 (Peer Reviewed) Outcome of ivermectin and doxycycline in cancer patients with COVID-19: A positive experience in Bangladesh
Small case study of ivermectin + doxycycline with 8 cancer patients, with all patients becoming PCR- by day 6 when tested again.
Early Chaccour et al., EClinicalMedicine, doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100720 (preprint 12/7) (Peer Reviewed) symptoms, ↓52.9%, p<0.05 The effect of early treatment with ivermectin on viral load, symptoms and humoral response in patients with non-severe COVID-19: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial
Tiny RCT for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in low risk patients, with 12 400mcg/kg single dose ivermectin patients and 12 control patients, showing significantly faster viral load reduction and symptom improvement with ivermectin. Ave..
In Vitro Surnar et al., ACS Pharmacol. Transl. Sci., doi:10.1021/acsptsci.0c00179 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Clinically Approved Antiviral Drug in an Orally Administrable Nanoparticle for COVID-19
In Vitro analysis of ivermectin with orally administrable nanoparticles showing efficacy for decreasing expression of the viral spike protein and ACE2. Inhibition of nuclear transport activities mediated through proteins such as importin ..
Early Ahmed et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.191 (Peer Reviewed) symptoms, ↓85.0%, p=0.09 A five day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness
Small 72 patient RCT of ivermectin and ivermectin + doxycycline showing faster recovery with ivermectin. Ivermectin group: 12mg daily for 5 days Ivermectin + doxycycline: 12mg ivermectin single dose, 200mg doxycycline + 100mg bid 4 days
Early Chamie, J. (News) news The effect of using ivermectin to control COVID-19 in Chiapas
After starting to distribute ivermectin in drug kits in July, the Mexican state of Chiapas has seen a dramatic divergence from other states with much lower mortality [1, 2].
Early Alonso et al., (Preprint) death, ↓91.8%, p=0.009 COVID-19: Uso de ivermectina
Observational study in Argentina showing significantly lower mortality in the 60 days after adopting ivermectin compared to the 60 days before, relative risk RR 0.082, p=0.003.
PrEPPEP Bernigaud et al., Annals of Dermatology and Venereology, doi:10.1016/j.annder.2020.09.231 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓99.4%, p=0.08 Ivermectin benefit: from scabies to COVID-19, an example of serendipity
69 residents of a French care home, median age 90, were treated with ivermectin for a scabies outbreak. 3,062 residents in 45 nearby comparable homes were used as controls. 7 of 69 treated patients had probable or certain COVID-19, with ..
PrEPPEP Hellwig et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106248 (Peer Reviewed) cases, ↓78.0%, p<0.02 A COVID-19 Prophylaxis? Lower incidence associated with prophylactic administration of Ivermectin
Analysis of COVID-19 cases vs. widespread prophylactic use of ivermectin for parasitic infections showing significantly lower incidence of COVID-19 cases.
Late Niaee et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) death, ↓81.8%, p=0.001 Ivermectin as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients: A randomized multi-center clinical trial
82% lower mortality with ivermectin. RCT with 180 hospitalized patients showing reduced mortality and hospital stay with ivermectin, with a wide margin of safety. All patients received SOC including low dose HCQ.
Animal de Melo et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.21.392639 (Preprint) animal study Anti-COVID-19 efficacy of ivermectin in the golden hamster
Hamster study finding significantly lower COVID-19 pathology although not finding lower viral load at the dosage used. Ivermectin dramatically reduced the Il-6/Il-10 ratio in lung tissue, which may account for the more favorable clinical ..
Late Budhiraja et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.16.20232223 (Preprint) death, ↓99.1%, p=0.04 Clinical Profile of First 1000 COVID-19 Cases Admitted at Tertiary Care Hospitals and the Correlates of their Mortality: An Indian Experience
Retrospective 976 hospitalized patients with 34 treated with ivermectin showing ivermectin mortality relative risk RR 0.13, p = 0.04.
PrEPPEP Carvallo et al., Journal of Biomedical Research and Clinical Investigation, doi:10.31546/2633-8653.1007 (Peer Reviewed) cases, ↓99.9%, p<0.0001 Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Ivermectin + Iota-Carrageenan in the Prophylaxis against COVID-19 in Health Personnel
Prophylaxis study using ivermectin and carrageenan showing 0 of 788 cases from treated healthcare workers, compared to 237 of 407 control. The effect is likely to be primarily due to ivermectin - the author has later reported that carrag..
Late Spoorthi et al., IAIM, 2020, 7:10, 177-182 (Peer Reviewed) recov. time, ↓21.1%, p=0.03 Utility of Ivermectin and Doxycycline combination for the treatment of SARSCoV-2
100 patient prospective trial of ivermectin + doxycycline showing reduced time to symptom resolution and shorter hospital stay with treatment.
PrEPPEP Elgazzar et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) cases, ↓80.0%, p=0.03 Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin for Treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 Pandemic
RCT for prophylaxis with ivermectin showing a significant reduction in cases with treatment. Relative risk of COVID-19 case RR 0.2, p = 0.03 This paper also reports a treatment study [1].
Late Elgazzar et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) death, ↓91.7%, p<0.0001 Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin for Treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 Pandemic
RCT comparing ivermectin + SOC vs. HCQ + SOC, showing a significant reduction in mortality with ivermectin. Mortality relative risk: RR 0.11, p = 0.12 (mild/moderate cases) RR 0.1, p < 0.001 (severe cases) The HCQ dose is relatively low..
Late Camprubí et al., PLoS ONE, 15:11, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0242184 (Peer Reviewed) ICU, ↓33.3%, p=1.00 Lack of efficacy of standard doses of ivermectin in severe COVID-19 patients
Tiny 26 patients retrospective study of ivermectin 200 μg/kg, median 12 days after symptoms, not showing significant differences. Authors suggest the dose is too low and recommend evaluation of higher doses. All patients received HCQ whi..
Early Krolewiecki et al., SSRN (Preprint) Antiviral Effect of High-Dose Ivermectin in Adults with COVID-19: A Pilot Randomised, Controlled, Open Label, Multicentre Trial
Viral load RCT finding a concentration dependent antiviral activity of oral high dose ivermectin at a dosing regimen that is well tolerated. There was no significant difference in viral load reduction between groups overall, but a signif..
Review Turkia, M., ResearchGate (Review) (Preprint) review FLCCC Alliance MATH+ ascorbic acid and I-MASK+ ivermectin protocols for COVID-19 — a brief review
Review suggesting ivermectin should be used based on existing data suggesting significant benefits, and that waiting for additional data may result in significant harm.
Early Cadegiani et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.31.20223883 (Preprint) death, ↓78.3%, p=0.50 Early COVID-19 Therapy with Azithromycin Plus Nitazoxanide, Ivermectin or Hydroxychloroquine in Outpatient Settings Significantly Reduced Symptoms Compared to Known Outcomes in Untreated Patients
Comparison of HCQ, nitazoxanide, and ivermectin showing similar effectiveness for overall clinical outcomes in COVID-19 when used before seven days of symptoms, and overwhelmingly superior compared to the untreated COVID-19 population, ev..
Early, Late Morgenstern et al., J. Clinical Trials (preprint 11/3) (Peer Reviewed) The Use of Compassionate Ivermectin in the Management of SymptomaticOutpatients and Hospitalized Patients with Clinical Diagnosis of Covid-19 at theCentro Medico Bournigal and at the Centro Medico Punta Cana, GrupoRescue, Dominican Republic, from May 1 to August 10, 2020
Retrospective 3,099 outpatients treated with ivermectin in an ER. Of 2,706 treated on an outpatient basis, 18 were subsequently hospitalized, 2 in the ICU, and there was one death (0.04%). The average treatment delay for patients treated..
PrEPPEP Behera et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247163 (preprint 11/3) (Peer Reviewed) cases, ↓53.8%, p<0.0001 Role of ivermectin in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers in India: A matched case-control study
Retrospective matched case-control prophylaxis study for HCQ, ivermectin, and vitamin C with 372 healthcare workers, showing lower COVID-19 incidence for all treatments, with statistical significance reached for ivermectin. HCQ OR 0.56, ..
Animal Arévalo et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.02.363242 (Preprint) animal study Ivermectin reduces coronavirus infection in vivo: a mouse experimental model
Mouse study showing ivermectin reducing MHV viral load and disease. MHV is a type 2 family RNA coronavirus similar to SARS-CoV2.
PrEPPEP Chang et al., ResearchGate (Preprint) COVID-19: Effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis with ivermectin in exposed persons
Pre-exposure prophylaxis study with 129 people split into high/low exposure groups, with each group split into different dosing regimens, showing higher effectivess with more frequent doses. High-exposure group: every 7 days dosing: 0 o..
Late Hashim et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.26.20219345 (Preprint) death, ↓66.7%, p=0.27 Controlled randomized clinical trial on using Ivermectin with Doxycycline for treating COVID-19 patients in Baghdad, Iraq
RCT 70 ivermectin-doxycycline patients and 70 control patients showing reduced time to recovery and reduced mortality with treatment. The earlier ivermectin+doxycycline was administered, the higher rate of successful therapy.
PrEPPEP Guerrero et al., Colombia Médica, doi:10.25100/cm.v51i4.4613 (Peer Reviewed) COVID-19: The Ivermectin African Enigma
Study of African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) countries, which used ivermectin, with non-APOC countries in Africa, showing 28% lower mortality for APOC countries, relative risk RR = 0.72 [0.67-0.78].
PrEPPEP Carvallo et al., NCT04425850 (Preprint) cases, ↓96.3%, p<0.0001 Usefulness of Topic Ivermectin and Carrageenan to Prevent Contagion of Covid 19 (IVERCAR)
Prophylaxis study using ivermectin and carrageenan showing 0 of 131 cases from treated healthcare workers, compared to 11 of 98 control. The effect is likely to be primarily due to ivermectin - the author has later reported that carragee..
Late Rajter et al., Chest, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.10.009 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓46.0%, p=0.04 Use of Ivermectin is Associated with Lower Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 (ICON study)
Retrospective 280 hospitalized patients showing lower mortality with ivermectin (13.3% vs 24.5%), propensity matched odds ratio OR 0.47 [0.22-0.99], p=0.045.
Late Mahmud et al., Clinical Trial Results, NCT04523831 (Preprint) death, ↓85.7%, p=0.25 Clinical Trial of Ivermectin Plus Doxycycline for the Treatment of Confirmed Covid-19 Infection
RCT for ivermectin+doxycycline showing improvements in mortality, recovery, progression, and virological cure. There is no paper yet, results are reported on 183 treatment and 183 control patients with no deaths in the..
Theory Francés-Monerris et al., ChemRxiv, doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12782258.v1 (Preprint) (Theory) theory Has Ivermectin Virus-Directed Effects against SARS-CoV-2? Rationalizing the Action of a Potential Multitarget Antiviral Agent
In silico study showing that ivermectin is capable of interfering in different key steps of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
Late Soto-Becerra et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.06.20208066 (Preprint) death, ↓17.1%, p=0.01 Real-World Effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and ivermectin among hospitalized COVID-19 patients: Results of a target trial emulation using observational data from a nationwide Healthcare System in Peru
Retrospective database study of 5683 patients, 692 received HCQ/CQ+AZ, 200 received HCQ/CQ, 203 received ivermectin, 1600 received AZ, 358 received ivermectin+AZ, and 2630 received standard of care. This study includes anyone with ICD-10..
Late Chachar et al., International Journal of Sciences, 9:31-35, doi:10.18483/ijSci.2378 (Peer Reviewed) no recov., ↓10.0%, p=0.50 Effectiveness of Ivermectin in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Patients
Small RCT with 25 ivermectin and 25 control patients, not finding a significant difference in recovery at day 7.
Late Khan et al., Archivos de Bronconeumología, doi:10.1016/j.arbres.2020.08.007 (Letter) death, ↓87.0%, p<0.05 Ivermectin treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19
Retrospective 115 ivermectin patients and 133 control patients showing significantly lower death and faster viral clearance. Some potential issues and the authors' response can be found in [1, 2].
In Vitro Li et al., J. Cellular Physiology, doi:10.1002/jcp.30055 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Quantitative proteomics reveals a broad‐spectrum antiviral property of ivermectin, benefiting for COVID‐19 treatment
In Vitro study showing Ivermectin is a safe wide-spectrum antiviral against SARS-CoV-2, human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), and HIV. Authors note that the combination of ivermectin and other drugs might result in more f..
Early Carvallo et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.09.10.20191619 (Preprint) death, ↓87.9%, p=0.05 Safety and Efficacy of the combined use of ivermectin, dexamethasone, enoxaparin and aspirin against COVID-19
Prospective trial of ivermectin, dexamethasone, enoxaparin, and aspirin. There was one death from 167 patients for 0.59% mortality, compared to an estimated overall mortality rate in Argentina of 2.1%. For moderate to severe cases needi..
Review Jans et al., Cells 2020, 9:9, 2100, doi:10.3390/cells9092100 (Review) (Letter) review Ivermectin as a Broad-Spectrum Host-Directed Antiviral: The Real Deal?
Review of ivermectin as a host-directed broad-spectrum antiviral agent for a range of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Cell culture experiments show robust antiviral action towards HIV-1, dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus, West Nile virus, V..
Late Podder et al., IMC J. Med. Science, 14:2, July 2020 (Peer Reviewed) recov. time, ↓16.1%, p=0.34 Outcome of ivermectin treated mild to moderate COVID-19 cases: a single-centre, open-label, randomised controlled study
Small RCT with 32 ivermectin patients and 30 control patients. The mean recovery time after enrolment in the intervention arm was 5.31 ± 2.48 days vs. 6.33 ± 4.23 days in the control arm, p > 0.05. Negative PCR results were not signific..
PrEPPEP Shouman et al., Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, doi:10.7860/JCDR/2020/46795.0000 (Peer Reviewed) symp. case, ↓91.3%, p<0.001 Use of Ivermectin as a Potential Chemoprophylaxis for COVID-19 in Egypt: A Randomised Clinical Trial
PEP trial for asymptomatic close contacts of COVID-19 patients, 203 ivermectin patients and 101 control patients. 7.4% of contacts developed COVID-19 in the ivermectin group vs. 58.4% in the control group, adjusted odds ratio OR 0.087, p ..
Early Espitia-Hernandez et al., Biomedical Research, 31:5 (Peer Reviewed) viral+, ↓97.2%, p<0.0001 Effects of Ivermectin-azithromycin-cholecalciferol combined therapy on COVID-19 infected patients: A proof of concept study
Small study with 28 patients treated with ivermectin + AZ + cholecalciferol and 7 control patients. All treated patients were PCR- at day 10 while all control patients remained PCR+. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days in the treatm..
Late Bhattacharya et al., Int. J. Scientific Research, doi:10.36106/ijsr/7232245 (Peer Reviewed) Observational Study on Clinical Features, Treatment and Outcome of COVID 19 in a tertiary care Centre in India- a retrospective case series
Retrospective 148 hospitalized patients showing triple therapy with ivermectin + atorvastatin + N-acetylcysteine resulted in a 1.35% case fatality rate which was well below the national average.
Late Chang et al., ResearchGate (Preprint) Post-acute or prolonged COVID-19: ivermectin treatment for patients with persistent symptoms or post-acute symptoms
Report on 33 patients with persistent or post-acute symptoms treated with ivermectin, showing a high rate of clinical improvement.
Theory Chang et al., ResearchGate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.34561.48483/2 (Preprint) (Theory) theory COVID-19: Post-exposure prophylaxis with ivermectin in contacts. At Homes, Places of Work, Nursing Homes, Prisons, and Others
Proposed PEP protocol based on ivermectin.
Late Alam et al., Journal of Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons, doi:10.3329/jbcps.v38i0.47512 (Peer Reviewed) A Case Series of 100 COVID-19 Positive Patients Treated with Combination of Ivermectin and Doxycycline
Case study of 100 patients treated with ivermectin and doxycycline, with no ICU admission, deaths, or serious side effects reported.
Late Rahman et al., J. Bangladesh Coll. Phys. Surg. 38, 5-9, doi:10.3329/jbcps.v38i0 (Peer Reviewed) Comparison of Viral Clearance between Ivermectin with Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine with Azithromycin in COVID-19 Patients
Comparison of 200 patients treated with ivermectin + doxycycline and 200 treated with HCQ + AZ. The HCQ + AZ group had more severe cases at baseline. Viral clearance was faster with ivermectin + doxycycline. Ivermectin dose is given all o..
Early Chowdhury et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) A Randomized Trial of Ivermectin-Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine-Azithromycin therapy on COVID19 patients
Small 116 patient RCT comparing Ivermectin-Doxycycline and HCQ+AZ, not showing a significant difference in time to PCR negative or symptom resolution. Time to symptomatic recovery was 5.93 days for Ivermectin-Doxycycline vs. 6.99 days for..
Late Gorial et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20145979 (Preprint) death, ↓71.0%, p=1.00 Effectiveness of Ivermectin as add-on Therapy in COVID-19 Management (Pilot Trial)
Small trial of hospitalized patients with 16 of 87 patients being treated with ivermectin showing a significantly lower mean hospital stay with ivermectin: 7.62 vs. 13.22 days, p=0.00005. 0 of 16 ivermectin patients died vs. 2 of 71 cont..
In Vitro Caly et al., Antiviral Research, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro
In Vitro study showing that ivermectin is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, with a single addition to Vero-hSLAM cells 2h post infection with SARS-CoV-2 able to effect ~5000-fold reduction in viral RNA at 48h.
Theory Lehrer et al., In Vivo, 34:5, 3023-3026, doi:10.21873/invivo.12134 (Theory) theory Ivermectin Docks to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-binding Domain Attached to ACE2
In silico analysis showing ivermectin docking which may interfere with the attachment of the spike to the human cell membrane.
Review Heidary et al., The Journal of Antibiotics, 73, 593–602, doi:10.1038/s41429-020-0336-z (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen
Review of the antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-cancer properties of ivermectin. Antiviral effects have been reported for Zika, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Hendra, Newcastle, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, chikungunya, Semliki For..
Early Chang, G., Research Gate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.34689.48482/7 (Preprint) Inclusión de la ivermectina en la primera línea de acción terapéutica para COVID-19
Peru observational case study of 7 patients treated with ivermectin, showing improvement and resolution of fever within 48 hours, and 100% recovery.
For search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), PRISMA answers, and statistical methods see In Vitro, Ex Vivo, Meta, Theory, Safety, Review, and News items are not included in the study count. There is a total of 84 items. Studies with preprints and journal versions are listed under the earlier preprint date.
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